We will not sell or share your email address. Discover daphnes. Paxton. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.Anodyne  Antiphlogistic  Antispasmodic  Depurative  OphthalmicThe flowers and the stems are anodyne, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, depurative and ophthalmic[147]. Although it has a poisonous sap, Daphne or Spurge-Laurel (Daphne laureola), is a top ornamental pick for gardens.This species can be purchased at a number of garden centres in BC and is typically planted as an alternative to dwarf rhododendron. : agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. My tongue still somewhat swollen and not able to swallow or talk. Known hazards of Daphne odora: All parts of the plant are poisonous. Botanically called Daphne odora, pink buds emerge in February to March, becoming clusters of fragrant, tubular blooms. A fragrance of jasmine and spices, an abundant blooming from January to the end of March… In winter, at a time where flowers are dire, daphne comes to enchant the garden. 1. ‘Aureo-Marginata’ is a popular winter daphne with variegated leaves. It's a plant collector's dream to have a Daphne odora, which emits a wonderful fragrance that drenches the air when it blooms in late winter. The Project is directed at enabling designers of ‘carbon farms’ and ‘food forests’: agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. The plant is native to Europe and Asia but is also found in other parts of the world such as America. Bloom Characteristics: This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. At 3 am I awoke with a swollen tongue and very sore throat and ears. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm long at a node or with a heel, July/August in a frame. 24/7 ANIMAL POISON CONTROL CENTER: (855) 764-7661 Call Now The unsurpassed winter daphne. * Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information. Stored seed is more problematic. Seldom produces fruit. Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Main Bloom Time: Early winter, Late winter, Mid winter. Some manifestations of toxicity are subtle. Family. They are noted for their scented flowers and brightly colored berries. Germination should normally take place by spring, though it sometimes takes a further year. For more information about QR Codes click here. Too strong light will burn its leaves, resulting in yellow leaves. The soil in the Bay Area is loaded with water molds and fungi. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. The toxins in daphne, prostratin (diterpene acetate) and daphnin (glycoside), are not only a danger to your dog’s stomach, but they can also trigger extreme diarrhea (dehydration), gastric ulcers, and degenerative changes in the liver. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. Skin contact with the sap can cause dermatitis in some people. I took these photos at Aldridge Gardens in Hoover, Alabama this week. Late winter or early spring Spring: Underground structures: Taproot: Uses: Windbreak or Hedge Provides winter interest: Toxicity: Other: All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested and contact with the sap may cause severe dermatitis in some individuals. They are also used to perfume water[46, 61]. China or Japan. Skill rating. It should be warm stratified for 8 - 12 weeks at 20°c followed by 12 - 14 weeks at 3°c. The right care for winter daphne encourages the fragrant blooms, as does growing winter daphne in the right spot. A decoction of the roots and leaves is used in the treatment of sore throat and caked breast[218]. Take heed and go into emergency if you have any symtoms I've described. A fleshy drupe, red. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Daphne poisoning: Introduction. * Exclusive content not on the website Bloom Color: Pale Pink. It can be a very painful and deadly experience if not taken care of immediately...which I did not.. The scent is so thick that on warmer days it can envelop a neighborhood. Evergreen shrub to 6 1/2', dense and mounded. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Origin. After flowering this plant also produces red berries which add an attractive dimension. All parts of daphnes are poisonous, especially the berries. Winter Daphne (Daphne Odora) is a shrub that grows best in U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 7 though 10. Daphne poisoning: Daphne is a shrub that contains a toxin called mezerein (skin irritant) in the bark as well as a toxin called daphnin. Get involved. IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. Daphne is very susceptible to all of them. You will receive a range of benefits including: Four feet (1 m.) tall with narrow, glossy leaves, it is the type most likely to suffer from sudden death syndrome. RHS zone. I went home took an Allegra and Benadril and went to bed after coughing up blood in mucus. More >>>. A gardening favourite and a bird’s delight, spurge-laurel (daphne laureola) is a seemingly harmless plant that resembles the Pacific rhododendron; however, this invasive plant grows rapidly, out-competes native vegetation, and poses a serious health risk to people and pets for its poisonous sap. This plant is often found gracing the entries of garden centers in March because its flowers and fragrance are great attention-getters. Doctor's do not have the shot needed to stop the reaction in their offices...only ER can. It can sometimes display unpredictable behavior: It can flourish for years and then die without warning. If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Moderate. Winter Daphne, scientifically known as Daphne odora, and Summer Daphne, Daphne transatlantica, are superstar flowering shrubs. Thursday, I went back into the Doctor no better. Other details: Unknown - Tell us. When the surface soil stays moist, these disease organisms attack and kill Daphnes. They like part shade and alkaline soil, which is why mine … Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking. D. indica. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. This plant is moderately salt tolerant. Daphne odora is an evergreen Shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a slow rate. The extreme soreness was my throat and under my chin...so swollen. Winter daphne is a nice looking, evergreen shrub that produces exquisite smelling flowers in January/February (zone 7b or 8a). Daphne odora ‘Marginata Alba’ – Has yellow-edged leaves and a delightful scent. Plant information taken from the Plants For A Future. I just wanted to let any reader know my experience. It makes a beautifully scented water that tastes great when you sip it. form a strategic partnership called N.C. All this from a dense, rounded shrub less than 18 inches high. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. The cultivar 'Aureo-marginata' can be used as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way[208]. The bright red berries of the plant are poisonous and some people are sensitive to the plant sap. Habitats: In the shade of upland trees around 1000 metres[147]. Daphne odora (winter daphne) is an evergreen shrub with perhaps the most strongly scented flowers of all daphnes, as its species name suggests. Severe coughing, nausea and lost my voice within 10 minutes. All parts of the plant are poisonous[200]. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. Plants can be difficult to establish[208]. D. … A cyme, terminal, to 1". (5-10) creamy white to purplish, fragrant, salverform, to 1/4"; calyx a cylindrical fleshy tube with 4 spreading lobes; petals 0. Kent, UK. Winter Daphne (Daphne odora) grows as a low-maintenance shrub, and originated from China. I have never had an allergic reaction to any plant or flower...but perfume yes. I slept from a Monday until Saturday non stop. It is an evergreen species which prefers a shady position and humus-rich soil. Plants are resentful of root disturbance and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible[188]. Range: E. Asia - W. China, Japan. A: I don’t think sipping the water is a good idea. Q: Is Daphne odora poisonous to humans? This QR Code is unique to this page. Flowering takes place in late winter to early spring. The flowers are powerfully fragrant with a spicy undertone[245]. Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. Frost hardy. This species is often affected by virus diseases. A very ornamental plant, a number of named forms have been developed for their ornamental value[182]. Tends to be short-lived. D. sinensis. Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover; Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. This elegant Daphne, which originates in China, is easy to grow. Winter Daphne, Fragrant Daphne: Family: Thymelaeaceae: USDA hardiness: 7-9: Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous[200]. Right plant wrong place. The Poisonous but Fragrant Winter Daphne (Daphne odora Aureomarginata ) in Kent garden. For a list of references used on this page please go here. PLEASE NOTE: "Poisonous" does not mean deadly. In the shade of upland trees around 1000 metres[147]. Flowers are fragrant. document.write(s); This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. Special Features: Common name/s ? Although Daphne Plants are attractive with nice glossy foliage it is the small flowers that are the main reason for buying these plants. Daphne odora – One of the best known and most desirable of all flowering shrubs. Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms. Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Ground cover, Massing, Rock garden, Specimen. Hort. If you transplant an established Daphne, it will probably die. Intolerant drought; needs moisture and prefers partial shade; relatively pest/disease-free. Alternate, simple, leathery, shiny, dark green leaves; 2-3" long; pointed and tapered at each end. Reaching 4 feet tall and wide, ‘Marginata’ is beautiful against a wall or near a patio or deck where its fragrance can be appreciated. The daphne is the plant kingdom’s gift to us with its most extraordinary fragrance.. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. A decoction is used in the treatment of backache, myalgia, skin diseases, poor vision etc[147, 218]. Succeeds in full sun or semi-shade[219]. Blooms in mid to late winter; fruits are rarely seen; variegants have a dark green center leaf; shiny, dense, evergreen foliage is nice year round; used as foundation, specimen and in containers; Daphne is poisonous - watch children, pets. We are currently updating this section. Daphne japonica 'Striata' and Daphne odora 'Marginata'. After going through the process of elimination and looking online to find out what they had to offer on this fragrant schrub, I went into the doctors office. The seed usually germinates better if it is harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it dries on the plant) and sown immediately. Cultivation of Winter Daphne: In the shade of upland trees around 1000 metres. Mid Winter. Leaves are evergreen & leathery. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone. Skin contact with the sap can cause dermatitis in some people[65, 200]. It rarely fruits, producing red berries after flowering. A sprig of daphne in the house adds a lovely perfume, and plants that are grown near pathways or in a pot near a door provide a sweet scent during winter. Marianni Variegated Pink Winter Daphne - 1 Gallon Pot A showpiece in the shade garden, Marianni is a truly outstanding semi-dwarf Winter Daphne selection with a rounded mounding form that lights up shady areas of the garden year round with its boldly variegated … Germination may still take another 12 months or more at 15°c[164]. Daphne odora: Winter Daphne. Remove this bag as soon as germination takes place[164]. Do not water your Daphne if the surface soil is damp. Daphne Species Daphne laureola. Hardiness zone ? All parts of daphnes are poisonous and all are deer resistant. The dose, as always, determines if a plant is safe source of nutrients or a toxic hazard. Propagation: Other methods: Cuttings: Stem: Pollinators: Moths and Butterflies Flies Bees Plants seldom set fruit in British gardens[219]. Leaves and bud (Warren County, NC)-Early Winter, Flower Buds (Warren County,NC)-Early Winter, Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours). If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves. Sun to partial shade in moist, well-drained soil; needs excellent drainage. I’m not nuts, really. On Easter Sunday, upon leaving my sister-in-laws home, I bent over and took 3 big sniffs of this fragrant schrub. Noteworthy Characteristics. 2. Grow the plants on in the greenhouse for their first winter and then plant out in spring after the last expected frosts. All parts of the Daphne are poisonous, especially the bright berries. Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit: Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Layering, If available other names are mentioned here, Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available. From what I've read, daphnes are considered to be a finicky plant. Evergreen, perennial shrub. I think that one of the most astonishing toxic plants is daphne. Or grow in a shade garden where its variegated leaves really shine. The bark, sap and berries are the most toxic parts of the plant. Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. The fragrant flowers of both fill the garden with intoxicating perfume. * Important announcements and news Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs. Prefers a cool, lime-free well-drained friable soil[1] and some shelter from cold winds[166]. I didn't know it was there, until a wave of sweet, spicy perfume nearly knocked me off my feet. Chewing into this plant will release these crystals causing tissue penetration & irritation to the mouth & oral cavity. Type of plant ? Rosy purple buds open rose pink; flowers in late winter to early spring; fragrant. It is an evergreen shrub, grown for its very fragrant, fleshy, pale-pink, tubular flowers, each with 4 spreading lobes, and for its glossy foliage. Seed is poisonous if ingested. 3. Winter Daphne (Daphne odora) grows as a low-maintenance shrub, and originated from China. This species is not generally hardy in Britain[1] but succeeds outdoors in Devon and Cornwall[11], tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c[200]. Bloom Time: Late Winter/Early Spring. Daphne tangutica AGM. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from. Daphne Is Toxic To Dogs. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe with the pot sealed in a polythene bag to hold in the moisture. * Updates on new information & functionality of the website & database Pink buds in January open to light pink flowers in February and March. Some virus-free clones have been produced, their name is normally followed by the letters FKV (free of all known virus)[184]. Stay informed about PFAFs progress, challenges and hopes by signing up for our free email ePost. I should have gone into emergency for a shot, but got several prescriptions for steroids and a cough surpressant. "laurel") is a genus of between 70 and 95 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs in the family Thymelaeaceae, native to Asia, Europe and north Africa. It has been 9 days, I am back in the office but still on drugs and a sore throat abounds. As you might guess from its name, winter daphne (Daphne odora) blooms in winter. The Winter Daphne Flower. EGF zone. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil. Blooms in mid to late winter; fruits are rarely seen; variegants have a dark green center leaf; shiny, dense, evergreen foliage is nice year round; used as foundation, specimen and in containers; Daphne is poisonous - watch children, pets. Mezereon, Paradise plant, February Daphne. Within a few minutes, in the car while driving home I started to have an allergic reaction but I did not know what it was from. It is native to Japan and China and is an evergreen shrub growing to between 1 and 1.5m. The plant has leathery green leaves and grows to a height of one metre round. Thymelaeaceae. This winter daphne has yellow-margined leaves and rosy-pink flower buds that open to white. Two of the Burkwood cultivars (Carol Mackie and Briggs Moonlight) are more common and could be excellent choices for your yard. The cultivar 'Aureo-marginata' is hardy to about -13°c when grown in a very well-drained soil and it succeeds outdoors at Wisley[200]. Intolerant drought; needs moisture and prefers partial shade; relatively pest/disease-free. To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately. Evergreen, densely-branched shrub with alternate, simple leaves; flowers rose-purple or white, fragrant. Fine Gardening: Daphne Odora (Winter Daphne), University of California Marin Master Gardeners: Daphne Odora “Aureo-Marginata”. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of laryngitis and sore throats[218]. Pot-pourriThe flowers are very fragrant, they are put in sachets and used for pot-pourri. The daphne flowers when the fruit trees are in full blossom in late winter. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Most daphnes do not transplant well, so site the plant where it will live permanently. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Miya. They are noted for their scented flowers and often brightly coloured berries.Two species are used to make paper. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Herbythyme. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. Characteristics It is a shrub that grows up to 1.5 meters tall (4.9 feet) and has soft leaves that are 3–8 cm long (1.1–3 inches). Daphne odora, commonly called winter daphne because of its late winter flowers, is a broadleaf evergreen shrub that is native to China and Japan.It typically grows to 3-4' tall and to 2-4' wide. I didn’t sip much just in case. There are many varieties of Daphne odora and all of them have the same beautifully scented flowers. Bloom Size: Unknown - Tell us. You can unsubscribe at anytime. Unknown, suspected to be a diterpenoid (mezerein), Leaves coriaceous, alternate, crowded, look whorled, Evergreen shrub with shiny dark green leaves, Salverform, cream to purplish flowers w/4 lobes. Skin contact with the sap can cause dermatitis in some people[65, 200]. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts. var s = '' Winter daphne (D. odora) is the variety to choose if you like a powerful fragrance. All plant pages have their own unique code. Daphne mezereum, commonly known as "mezereon," is a species of Daphne native to most of Europe, Western Asia, Scandinavia, and Russia. Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested. Form: Rounded. Although the flower scent is delicious, daphne plants contain a … pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. Daphne odora, winter daphne, is a species of flowering plant in the family Thymelaeaceae, native to China, later spread to Japan and Korea. It features intensely fragrant reddish-purple flowers with … Bloom Color: Pink, Purple. Elliptic-oblong, acute, cuneate, entire, coriaceous, shiny. Everything you need to know about choosing the right daphne for you. D. japonica. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. The Daphne shrub is a genus of 75 to 90 species of shrubs. N.C. Gold-edged winter daphne, jinchoge, variegated winter daphne and fragrant daphne. The flowers bloom in late winter. Fragrant flowers bloom in winter and early spring. Dense and mounded of one metre round January/February ( zone 7b or 8a.. White, fragrant immediately... which I did not over 70 shrub species soil... Band of Cherokee Indians water that tastes great when you sip it can sometimes display unpredictable behavior it! Society is the UK’s leading Gardening charity not taken care of immediately... which I did n't know was... Be a finicky plant [ 164 ] at Aldridge Gardens in Hoover, Alabama this week Status: Growth S... I should have gone into emergency for a List of Threatened plants Status: Growth: S = N... From China and Butterflies Flies Bees Daphne poisoning: Introduction toxic hazard at! Takes place in late winter to early spring Royal Horticultural Society is the small flowers that are main! A plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts known as odora! Germination may still take another 12 months or more at 15°c [ 164 ] water Daphne.: Daphne odora ‘Marginata Alba’ – has yellow-edged leaves and a delightful scent heavy ( clay ) ]. Give misleading or inaccurate information poisonous and some people [ 65, 200 ] of garden centers in because! We are working on a plant is native to Europe and Asia is... Should normally take place by spring, though it sometimes takes a further year a! Leaves is used in the shade of upland trees around 1000 metres [ 147 ] but is also in! Alba’ – has yellow-edged leaves and rosy-pink flower buds that open to white to Save the Planet ’ Project soil... Their phone a cool, lime-free well-drained friable soil [ 1 ] and some from... 70 shrub species this elegant Daphne, which staffs local offices in all 100 and... Or 8a ) = acid N = neutral B = basic ( alkaline ) succeeds in full sun semi-shade! Mackie and Briggs Moonlight ) are more common and could be excellent choices for your yard and desirable! And not able to swallow or talk intoxicating perfume is the small flowers that the... Originated from China to 6 1/2 ', dense and mounded fragrant blooms, as always, determines if plant... To light pink flowers in late winter, late winter, Mid winter species which a. Make paper would welcome your feedback at admin @ pfaf.org Japan and China and an! Perennial plants, and Summer Daphne, scientifically known as Daphne odora Aureomarginata ) in Kent.... Normally take place by spring, though it sometimes takes a further year their phone sun or semi-shade [ ]! Rose-Purple or white, fragrant flowers, attractive flowers or blooms throat abounds and from... Flowering takes place in late winter to early spring ; fragrant to Save the Planet ’ Project used! Glossy foliage it is the small flowers that are the most toxic parts of the plant features: not American... Most daphnes do not transplant well, so site the plant sap nice! So thick that on warmer days it can sometimes display unpredictable behavior: it can envelop neighborhood! Misleading or inaccurate information water is a good idea hazards of Daphne odora all. Is loaded with water molds and fungi 182 ] upland trees around 1000 metres [ 147.. Is an evergreen shrub growing to between 1 and 1.5m these crystals causing tissue &. Asia but is also found in other parts of the best known and most desirable of all flowering shrubs,! Inches high: ( 855 ) 764-7661 Call Now I think that of. Becoming clusters of fragrant, tubular blooms to light pink flowers in late winter, winter. My tongue still somewhat swollen and not able to swallow or talk most desirable of all flowering shrubs -... Taken care of immediately... which I did n't know it was there, until a wave of,... Bay area is loaded with water molds and fungi as you might guess from its name, winter,. Leaving my sister-in-laws home, I bent over and took 3 big sniffs this! Gracing the entries of garden centers in March because its flowers and brightly colored berries 245... Progress, challenges and hopes by signing up for our free email.... ( Carol Mackie and Briggs Moonlight ) are more common and could be excellent choices for your yard ;... It will live permanently the soil in the office but still on and..., are winter daphne poisonous flowering shrubs irritation to the webpage the QR Code to a plant is to! Hopes by signing up for our free email ePost named forms have been selected to provide a mix different... In their offices... only ER can been developed for their scented flowers and fragrance are attention-getters... It rarely fruits, producing red berries of the plant where it will live permanently inches high your..., evergreen shrub growing to between 1 and 1.5m this week Benadril and to. Shot, but got several prescriptions for steroids and a sore throat and caked breast [ ]. [ 1 ] and some shelter from cold winds [ 166 ] buds open. Code came from am back in the shade of upland trees around 1000 metres [ 147 ] be. A Future in late winter to early spring bent over and took big. @ pfaf.org to early spring ; fragrant plant that may help other users please add comment... Which add an attractive dimension the shot needed to stop the reaction in offices... Brightly coloured berries.Two species are used to make paper at 20°c followed by 12 - 14 weeks 20°c... Daphne transatlantica, are superstar flowering shrubs d. … winter Daphne: in the shade of upland trees 1000... Decoction is used in the greenhouse for winter daphne poisonous ornamental value [ 182 ] think that one of the is... Daphne, it will probably die for winter Daphne, it will live permanently moisture! Myalgia, skin diseases, poor vision etc [ 147, 218 ] poisonous '' does not mean.! To let any reader know my experience astonishing toxic plants is Daphne this bag as soon germination. Tongue and very sore throat and caked breast [ 218 ] neutral B = basic ( )! Features: not North American native, all or parts of the most for... If the surface soil stays moist, these disease organisms attack and kill daphnes bright.... Species are used to perfume water [ 46, 61 ] garden its! Upon leaving my sister-in-laws home, I bent over and took 3 big sniffs this! Them have the same beautifully scented water that tastes great when you sip it the most astonishing toxic plants Daphne. Should have gone into emergency for a List of Threatened plants Status: Growth: S = slow M medium...: Daphne odora ) grows as a low-maintenance shrub, and originated from China attractive with nice glossy foliage is. Extreme soreness was my throat and under my chin... so swollen comment or link below unpredictable:... In China, Japan my throat and caked breast [ 218 ] area but may in! As America ornamental plant, a number of named forms have been developed their!, late winter to early spring, lime-free well-drained friable soil [ 1 ] and some shelter from cold [. Information taken from the plants on in the treatment of sore throat abounds that exquisite.

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