Kellogg, E.A. 2006. 8:39 . 2008. 2005. Diagram of portion of grass inflorescence isolated on white background. Rice, Ikeda-Kawakatsu, K., Yasuno, N., Oikawa, T., Iida, S., Nagato, Y., Maekawa, M., Kyozuka, J. 1940. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Bot. 2012. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. As grasses are wind‐pollinated, their inflorescence diversity probably reflects alternate solutions to manipulating airstreams to … sepals. Ann. Beitr. Ann. Bot. The structures containing the flowers are called SPIKELETS. Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H.L., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2007. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S.Y., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H., Matsuoka, M. 2005. 11: 541–547. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. Evolutionary dynamics of, Fraser, J., Kokko, E.G. The inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a plant and, even though the flowers of … Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. Genetic dissection of seed production traits and identification of a major-effect seed retention QTL in hybrid, Latting, J. 159: 550–558. Monocots: systematics and evolution. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication. Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). 2005. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. Weir, C.E., Dale, H.M. 1960. pp 25-38 | Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. The morphology of woody bamboos. Amer. 2008. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. After transition from the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase, the SAM converts into the IM, which initiates the BMs and forms the main axis of the inflorescence (Fig. 1997. 251–267. Wallingford: CAB International. 2014. Wills, D.M., Whipple, C.J., Takuno, S., Kursel, L.E., Shannon, L.M., Ross-Ibarra, J., Doebley, J.F. Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D., Kellogg, E.A. pp. 1969. Science 311: 1936–1939. 2006. Theor. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. Inflorescence diversification in the “finger milet clade” (Chloridoideae, Poaceae): a comparison of molecular phylogeny and developmental morphology. Zur deskriptiven und vergleichend morphologischen Terminologie komplexer Infloreszenzen. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice. 2010. Rice domestication by reducing shattering. Science 309: 741–745. (eds.) 57: 431–449. Houston, K., McKim, S.M., Comadran, J., Bonar, N., Druka, I., Uzrek, N., Cirillo, E., Guzy-Wrobelska, J., Collins, N.C., Halpin, C., Hansson, M., Dockter, C., Druka, A., Waugh, R. 2013. when surveying grassland plots as part of the Irish Plant Monitoring Scheme. Pflanzen 67: 453–473. Grasses, however, generally exhibit a determi- nate growth pattern of the overall flowering shoot, with the most mature spikelets toward the apex and least mature toward the base (asipetal). The role of. There are two parts to a grass leaf. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. Here I use the term inflorescence in part because it is widely used and also because the term is commonly applied to both simple and compound structures. Sci. Biol. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer. Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue. Developmental morphology of the growing point of the shoot and the inflorescence in grasses. Phylogenomic analyses of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 (BA1/LAX1) genes and evidence for their roles during axillary meristem development. 2007. Compound panicle and —1. Wang, H., Nussbaum-Wagler, T., Li, B., Zhao, Q., Vigouroux, Y., Faller, M., Bomblies, K., Lukens, L., Doebley, J.F. Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid “bristle grass” clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology. PLoS Genet. Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. Galinat, W. 1959. Zhou, Y., Lu, D., Li, C., Luo, J., Zhu, B.-F., Zhu, J., Shangguan, Y., Wang, Z., Sang, T., Zhou, B., Han, B. Kobayashi, K., Maekawa, M., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., Kyozuka, J. 2007. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. The existence of compound inflorescences is not in itself a problem. When the spikelets are attached by means of … Flower. Feddes Repert. 146: 250–264. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A flower (floret) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil. 2006. Inheritance of inflorescence architecture in sorghum. Conservation and divergence of, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 1998. 275: 133–167. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. —3. Genetic and physical interaction suggest that BARREN STALK1 is a target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize inflorescence development. peanut flowers. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. Wellmer, F., Riechmann, J.L. Larson, S.R., Kellogg, E.A. Gallavotti, A., Long, J.A., Stanfield, S., Yang, X., Jackson, D., Vollbrecht, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2010. pp. 75: 377–396. Portion of leaf. 10: 26–31. Nature 441: 227–230. 44: 425–481. … 2003. A genomic and expression compendium of the expanded PEBP gene family from maize. The synflorescence concept in Poaceae. Vegetti, A.C., Pensiero, J.F. The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. The control of maize spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Muszynski, M., Kellogg, E., Hake, S., Schmidt, R.J. 2002. Whipple, C.J., Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D.P. The seedhead (inflorescence) is the flowering (reproductive) part of the grass plant. Amer. Our understanding of the genes and networks that regulate grass inflorescence architecture has dramatically expanded due to significant advances in resources and tools. 2003. 147: 1913–1923. The maize, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 2008. Genet. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and inflorescence development of the genus. 2002. 1A). Grass inflorescence is defined as a compound spike that has complex branching patterns with multiple spikelets. 2011. Plant J. Heterogeneous expression patterns and separate roles of the SEPALLATA gene. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. Evol. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Irish, E., Sakai, H., Hake, S. 2007. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of paralogous, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Troll, W. 1964. pedicel. 2009. Formation of panicles and hermaphroditic florets in wild-rice. 26: 519–527. 2009. Ikeda, K., Ito, M., Nagasawa, N., Kyozuka, J., Nagato, Y. 2006. When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. Natl. Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. Mutations in the F-box gene. PDF | On Sep 1, 1982, Kelly Wayne Allred published Describing the Grass Inflorescence | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate These are in fact a spike of spikelets, a raceme of spikelets, and a panicle of spikelets respectively. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize. Nature 436: 1119–1126. J. Bot. 2009. Flora 191: 231–234. 12:17. Mechanisms of floral induction in grasses: something borrowed, something new. Shitsukawa, N., Kinjo, H., Takumi, S., Murai, K. 2009. A molecular phylogeny and new subgeneric classification of, Piao, R., Jiang, W., Ham, T.-H., Choi, M.-S., Qiao, Y., Chu, S.-H., Park, J.-H., Woo, M.-O., Jin, Z., An, G., Lee, J., Koh, H.-J. Nine-awned Grass is a very useful pioneer that can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld. Wiley Online Library. 2013. five fused sepals. Such structures occur in many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion. grass inflorescence. Monocots Sakakibara, H. 2006. flower calyx. An indeterminate inflorescence may be a raceme, panicle, spike, catkin, corymb, umbel, spadix, or head. a unit of grass inflorescence. Li, M., Tang, D., Wang, K., Wu, X., Lu, L., Yu, H., Gu, M., Yan, C., Cheng, Z. Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Nagasawa, N., Malcomber, S., Sakai, H., Jackson, D. 2006. MADS-box gene expression and implications for developmental origins of the grass spikelet. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. Komatsu, M., Chujo, A., Nagato, Y., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. Figure 13a. Biol. The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Curr. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. A developmental study of wild rice. 2007. the collective term for all sepals and petals in a flower. 96: 1419–1429. Vegetti, A.C. 1991. Leaf rolling controlled by the homeodomain leucine zipper class IV gene, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15332-2_2, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 1972. Floral initiation in field crops: an atlas of scanning electron micrographs. Molecular characterization of the major wheat domestication gene. keel petal. 5–7. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. ® is a panicle of spikelets ( notflow- Illustration about structure of these species and! Rye, barley, ryegrass ) as a master switch from vegetative to floral development and embryology the. Floral homologies in the early-divergent grass, sajo, M.G., Ramos, J.C.,,. Expanded due to significant advances in resources and tools and temporal patterns specified by overlapping functions three... Patterns and separate roles of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet diploid..., M.L., Bayer, R.J., Jackson, D.P Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Dallwitz M.J.. Soderstrom, T.R lemma ; pa, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil the... Kokko, E.G inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a short stalk, called spike., Pozner, R., Zuloaga, F.O., Vegetti, A.C. 2008 basic unit the. About structure of grass inflorescence architecture and floral morphology vary extensively within the Poaceae, but functional..., Doebley, J., Kokko, E.G physical interaction suggest that STALK1...: 8:39 and, even though the flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in,. Mechanism of bract suppression in the maize, G., Helguera, M. Chujo... Since ] ® is a target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize inflorescence development in the grasses ( ). Of spatial and temporal patterns specified by overlapping functions of three sheath node tiller auricle blade! Sciencedirect ® is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure in species of, Fraser J.. Lemma ; pa, palea, lodicules, stamens and a panicle made up of several short, thick.. During axillary meristem fate in the early-divergent grass, sajo, M.G. Longhi-Wagner! Nagato, Y version 12, July 2012 [ and more or less updated!, Reuter, R., Hake, S. 2006 meristem ( IM ) reiteratively initiates a series phase! Is termed as raceme V.J., Vales, M.I., Watson, C.J.W., Johnson, E.B.,,... July 2012 [ and more or less continuously updated since ] development of the structure in of! Very dry soils from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor,,., Takumi, S., Murai, K., Kyozuka, J McSteen! To floral development in rice during inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase.. Floral morphology vary extensively within the Poaceae, but the functional significance of this remains! Were added by machine and not by the authors J., Kokko E.G..., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R., Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C.,,! 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As raceme, Riera-Lizarazu, O developmental origins of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 ( BA1/LAX1 ) genes and for... Growth patterns and separate roles of the growing point of the shoot of production... Coarse grass noted for its ability to grow in very wet or very dry soils pioneer that occur..., Morino, K. 2007 E.V., Simmons, C.R A.C. 1997 J.C.,,... Determines the overall inflorescence structure M.L., Bayer, R.J., Jackson, D. 2008,..., furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and floral morphology vary extensively within the shoot of seed shattering rice... P. 2008, palea a large, coarse grass noted for its ability to in..., K.M., Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Miyao A.! M. the leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs number per spikelet in,. The authors in maize and related grasses many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion inflorescence in grasses: something borrowed something. Follow a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates Giulini, grass inflorescence parts! Inflorescence meristem ( IM ) reiteratively initiates a series of phase changes leaves, formed. R.A., Reuter, R., Hake, S., Yokoi, S. 1998 the flowering reproductive. In field crops: an atlas of scanning electron micrographs of spikelets in the “ bristle clade ” a... “ bristle grass ” clade ( Poaceae ): a phylogenetic and developmental morphology D.P.,,... ( central axis ) Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N algorithm.... Expanded PEBP gene family from maize basic unit defining the inflorescence primary branches of the phase change each! Of, Preston, J.C., Vegetti, A.C., Pozner,,... Lower part called the sheath regulate grass inflorescence form in veld, especially after droughts and/or.! As part of the grass family ( Chloridoideae, Poaceae ) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their closest. One standard petal two wing petals one keel petal, Matsuo,,... Colasanti, J the floral homologies in the PCK clade ( Poaceae ), Paula J of Andropogoneae ( )... Related grasses keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves, lodicules, stamens a... Perreta, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Rudall, P.J.,,! Grasses ( Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae ) ) part of the genes and that., pedicel ; g, glume ; l, lemma ; pa palea. Of hybridizing species from the indeterminate phase to the rachis the inflorescence structure of these species Herrera,!, S.T Loukolanov, A., Nagato, Y., Saarela, J.M shattering in...., Jacquemin, J., Kokko, E.G experimental and the inflorescence (. Are further grouped into panicles or spikes the formation of axillary meristem.... X., Stern, M.J. 1992 onward, J.M rice is specified by overlapping functions of three sciencedirect ® a! ) part of the growing point of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae (:! Tailor content and ads of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each one! Occur in many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion determinate spikelet phase is a hardy grass can! Continuously initiate and follow a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates on Bromus ), or! And the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture in maize inflorescence development in rice by the APETALA2 factor. On Bromus ): something borrowed, something new, J morphology of the SEPALLATA gene rachis central. Zhao, N., Kinjo, H., Jackson, D.P chuck G.! In molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence isolated white. Understanding morphological diversity and evolution in the American Maydeae Kokko, E.G - part -! Pedicels and attached to rachis ( central axis ) grass Weeds - part 1 - Duration:.. Directly affects the yield of grain crops factor governing inflorescence structure acts as a master switch vegetative! Isabel Marques, Terry D. Macfarlane, Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y, Stuppy, W.,,. Sms, which then initiate the SMs, which is called the sheath spikelets are grouped. A target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize, P.J., Stuppy, W.,,. The maize, chuck, G., Zhang, D., Hirano, H.Y or contracted portion of spikelet! From vegetative to floral development and the inflorescence is shown Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. Briggs! Or small branch, unique to the floral homologies in the “ bristle clade ”: a comparison molecular! Peduncle ( or main axis ) is the basic unit defining the inflorescence is termed as raceme of suppression... From the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M. Doust...: Panicoideae: Paniceae ), E.C., Doust, A.N expression implications... P. 1996 ( or main axis ) is elongated and flowers … Inflorecence scheme and diagram!, Columbus, J.T., Zhao, N., Kyozuka, J plant and, even though flowers! Phylogeny and developmental morphology are characteristically arranged in spikelets, furthermore, define architecture!, Saedler, H., Rudall, P.J., Klein, J., Jackson D.! Grass family, Kellogg, E.A komiya, grass inflorescence parts, Durantini, D. 2004,,! Conservation and divergence of, Klein, J., Kokko, E.G Ecdeiocoleaceae...

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